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PHYSIOTHERAPY TREATMENT

FREQUENT VISION DISORDERS IN CHILDREN AND RECOMMENDED TREATMENTS

The eyeball is a complex mechanism and the changes to its structure must be diagnosed correctly and in useful time in order to get efficient treatment. Bellow you can find the most frequent vision disorders in children and the treatments applied by the “Oculus Prim” specialists in order to give children the best vision possible.

Structure of the eyeball

The visual system of the eyeball is similar to the system of a photo camera. The ray of light passes through a transparent lens and focuses on the film. The cornea (the transparent lens through which the iris and pupil is visible) and the lens (placed underneath the iris, responsible for the clear vision of near objects) play the role of the camera lens. The image is projected on the retina, which plays the role of “film”, and is subsequently sent for analysis to the visual area of the brain.

Normally, if a person’s acuity is 1,0 or 100%, all the light passes through the iris and is focused on the retina.

Myopia (near-sightedness)

Myopia is a refraction disorder, characterized by good vision for close objects and blurry vision for distant objects. Myopia in children is not an optic disorder which can easily be treated with eyeglasses.

In cases of myopia, with the progression of the disorder, the eyeball increases in length. This leads to dystrophic changes on the retina and subsequent decrease of visual acuity to the loss of sight. The golden standard in myopia treatment is considered the Physiotherapy treatment and Corneal Refractive Therapy.

Hyperopia (far-sightedness)

In cases of hyperopia, the eyeball is shorter than normally. Because of this, light is focused behind, instead of on, the retina; in the back of the eyeball a blurry and unclear image is created and the vision is foggy, especially for close objects.

Almost all newborns have a hyperopia of approximately 3 diopters. But, with age, the eyeball of the child grows in size and the optic focus moves to the retina. In some children, for various reasons, this hyperopia doesn’t disappear with age. In order to see clearly, they need to stress their eye muscles. This permanent effort can cause ocular pain, headaches, sensation of visual fatigue.

Many times hyperopia leads to a decrease in the function of the brain’s visual cortex cells, because the clear image doesn’t reach the cortex, therefore there aren’t sufficient stimuli for the correct development of the neurons. This disorder causes reduced visual acuity and development of amblyopia.

Amblyopia

If the image in one eye is weaker or different from the one in the second one, the nervous cells of the respective eyeball are not developing properly. Thus, the brain starts ignoring the images received and “excludes” the weaker eye up until it is not used anymore. This disorder is called amblyopia and can develop exclusively in children, because during childhood the visual system is very malleable and any negative impact can lead to disorders in the development of the system.

If left untreated, the vision in the weaker eye will gradually decrease. If treated until the age of 3 years old, the children have a much better chance to recuperate their vision. At 6-7 years old, the eyes of the child are almost completely developed. Therefore, after this age it can be extremely difficult to treat amblyopia.

Children with hyperopia and amblyopia are treated with correction glasses, prescribed for daily usage. Usually, the glasses are smaller in diopter than the level of hyperopia, as they stimulate the growth of the eye and help reducing hyperopia. Also, different other procedures are conducted with the help of different devices, which include a variety of stimulations methods of the vision and, in most cases, these procedures can cure amblyopia. Usually, if the hyperopia and amblyopia treatment are well managed, children don’t need constant correction glasses.

Strabismus

Another danger threatening a child with far-sightedness is strabismus (crossed eyes), a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. It is an alarming disorder not only aesthetically, but also functionally.

Usually, strabismus develops in children with hyperopia at the age of 2,5-3 years old, when the visual effort for close objects increases substantially. If the condition is not treated by the age of 5-6 years old, children risk losing their visual acuity in the weaker eye.

Children with hyperopia and strabismus are treated with correction glasses, prescribed for daily usage. Sometimes, suitable correcting glasses can completely cure strabismus. Still, this is not sufficient. Conservative therapy with the use of devices is also necessary for curing this disorder. The purpose of this therapy is to cure amblyopia (if this disorder is present) and restore the “bridges” between the eyes. Thus, the child learns to merge the image seen in the left eye with the one in the right.

Astigmatism

In cases of astigmatism, the curvature of the cornea is irregular and the eye focuses the light in two different parts of the retina. Usually, the focus is not placed on the retina. Just like far-sightedness, astigmatism is an innate disease. Sometimes, astigmatism is hereditary.

Children with astigmatism often develop amblyopia as well, but in these cases there are some particularities which have to be taken into consideration when prescribing glasses and treatment, as well as other curative procedures.

The treatment methods for visual dysfunctions like astigmatism are conservative. It is necessary to perform 3 to 4 procedures per year, which result in a better vision with glasses and without. These special procedures can significantly improve the visual functions in children with astigmatism, thus providing the possibility to reduce the dioptre and, subsequently, eliminate the necessity for correction eyeglasses.

PHYSIOTHERAPY TREATMENT

FREQUENT VISION DISORDERS IN CHILDREN AND RECOMMENDED TREATMENTS

The eyeball is a complex mechanism and the changes to its structure must be diagnosed correctly and in useful time in order to get efficient treatment. Bellow you can find the most frequent vision disorders in children and the treatments applied by the “Oculus Prim” specialists in order to give children the best vision possible.

Structure of the eyeball

The visual system of the eyeball is similar to the system of a photo camera. The ray of light passes through a transparent lens and focuses on the film. The cornea (the transparent lens through which the iris and pupil is visible) and the lens (placed underneath the iris, responsible for the clear vision of near objects) play the role of the camera lens. The image is projected on the retina, which plays the role of “film”, and is subsequently sent for analysis to the visual area of the brain.

Normally, if a person’s acuity is 1,0 or 100%, all the light passes through the iris and is focused on the retina.

Myopia (near-sightedness)

Myopia is a refraction disorder, characterized by good vision for close objects and blurry vision for distant objects. Myopia in children is not an optic disorder which can easily be treated with eyeglasses.

In cases of myopia, with the progression of the disorder, the eyeball increases in length. This leads to dystrophic changes on the retina and subsequent decrease of visual acuity to the loss of sight. The golden standard in myopia treatment is considered the Physiotherapy treatment and Corneal Refractive Therapy.

Hyperopia (far-sightedness)

In cases of hyperopia, the eyeball is shorter than normally. Because of this, light is focused behind, instead of on, the retina; in the back of the eyeball a blurry and unclear image is created and the vision is foggy, especially for close objects.

Almost all newborns have a hyperopia of approximately 3 diopters. But, with age, the eyeball of the child grows in size and the optic focus moves to the retina. In some children, for various reasons, this hyperopia doesn’t disappear with age. In order to see clearly, they need to stress their eye muscles. This permanent effort can cause ocular pain, headaches, sensation of visual fatigue.

Many times hyperopia leads to a decrease in the function of the brain’s visual cortex cells, because the clear image doesn’t reach the cortex, therefore there aren’t sufficient stimuli for the correct development of the neurons. This disorder causes reduced visual acuity and development of amblyopia.

Amblyopia

If the image in one eye is weaker or different from the one in the second one, the nervous cells of the respective eyeball are not developing properly. Thus, the brain starts ignoring the images received and “excludes” the weaker eye up until it is not used anymore. This disorder is called amblyopia and can develop exclusively in children, because during childhood the visual system is very malleable and any negative impact can lead to disorders in the development of the system.

If left untreated, the vision in the weaker eye will gradually decrease. If treated until the age of 3 years old, the children have a much better chance to recuperate their vision. At 6-7 years old, the eyes of the child are almost completely developed. Therefore, after this age it can be extremely difficult to treat amblyopia.

Children with hyperopia and amblyopia are treated with correction glasses, prescribed for daily usage. Usually, the glasses are smaller in diopter than the level of hyperopia, as they stimulate the growth of the eye and help reducing hyperopia. Also, different other procedures are conducted with the help of different devices, which include a variety of stimulations methods of the vision and, in most cases, these procedures can cure amblyopia. Usually, if the hyperopia and amblyopia treatment are well managed, children don’t need constant correction glasses.

Strabismus

Another danger threatening a child with far-sightedness is strabismus (crossed eyes), a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. It is an alarming disorder not only aesthetically, but also functionally.

Usually, strabismus develops in children with hyperopia at the age of 2,5-3 years old, when the visual effort for close objects increases substantially. If the condition is not treated by the age of 5-6 years old, children risk losing their visual acuity in the weaker eye.

Children with hyperopia and strabismus are treated with correction glasses, prescribed for daily usage. Sometimes, suitable correcting glasses can completely cure strabismus. Still, this is not sufficient. Conservative therapy with the use of devices is also necessary for curing this disorder. The purpose of this therapy is to cure amblyopia (if this disorder is present) and restore the “bridges” between the eyes. Thus, the child learns to merge the image seen in the left eye with the one in the right.

Astigmatism

In cases of astigmatism, the curvature of the cornea is irregular and the eye focuses the light in two different parts of the retina. Usually, the focus is not placed on the retina. Just like far-sightedness, astigmatism is an innate disease. Sometimes, astigmatism is hereditary.

Children with astigmatism often develop amblyopia as well, but in these cases there are some particularities which have to be taken into consideration when prescribing glasses and treatment, as well as other curative procedures.

The treatment methods for visual dysfunctions like astigmatism are conservative. It is necessary to perform 3 to 4 procedures per year, which result in a better vision with glasses and without. These special procedures can significantly improve the visual functions in children with astigmatism, thus providing the possibility to reduce the dioptre and, subsequently, eliminate the necessity for correction eyeglasses.